Dec 23, 2016


This is the first in a series of posts about what I am calling the “Burge School of Functional Programming”. When I originally tweeted that I was going to do this, I called it the “Burge-Runciman” School, but upon further reflection I think that they are distinct and I was being clouded by the fact that it was Colin Runciman who taught me about Burge.


There has been a lot of discussion online in the past few years about what Functional Programming is. This discussion comes in waves and we recently had a high-point when a list claiming to classify levels of Functional Programming was widely distributed.

I, as well as many of my colleagues, found the list a bit disconcerting. It is a dangerous game to try and make such a prescriptive list about a topic; it is a near certainty that any benefits of such a list are far outweighed by the likelihood of any such list alienating those who are looking to get started in Functional Programming.

Independent of the situation I just described, I’ve been dissatisfied with the attitude that Haskell is the ‘truest’ Functional Language, or that it somehow exhibits FP in its ‘purest’ form. Because of this I have wanted to write about some Functional Programming history for a few years now. In particular I want to draw some attention to William H. Burge’s book “Recursive Programming Techniques”, which is a (sometimes forgotten) gem of Functional Programming.


When I was a PhD student at York, I remember reading a paper about parser combinators in Haskell. I went into Colin Runciman’s office and expressed my joy, and in particular I expressed something like “it’s amazing that they were able to come up with something like that!”. This was early days of my PhD when I still wasn’t so great at identifying what’s actually novel in a paper. Colin told me to wait a minute and he went to his bookshelf and grabbed an old book: “Recursive Programming Techniques” by William H. Burge. He suggested I read it.

The book was first published in 1975, three years before Backus’ famous Turing award lecture “Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?”, which is often seen as a watershed moment in the history of functional programming because it brought so much attention to the field. In my view Burge’s book has aged much better than Backus’ lecture, but that is likely due to other factors.1

The Burge School

Burge’s book is, in my opinion, one of the best publications on what functional programming is about. This is made even more intriguing when you think about what wasn’t around when this book was first published. In 1975 we did not have:

This is in contrast to how many commentators online talk about functional programming. However, much in the same way that music is not a set of instruments, functional programming is not a set of abstractions that we need to learn and memorize. Functional programming is an approach to solving computational problems.

Many of the abstractions that you do read about are ways to apply this approach to new problems, or problems that were difficult to solve without reaching for more traditional programming methods. But the essence, the core, of what functional programming is about is mostly unchanged.

In the preface to the book Burge writes (emphasis mine):

The main emphasis [of this book] is placed on those parts of the language, namely expressions, that denote the end results sought from the computer, rather than on the instructions which the machine must follow in order to achieve the results. The main thesis of this book is that, in many cases, this emphasis on expressions as opposed to mechanisms simplifies and improves the task of programming.

The above will be familiar to anyone who has had the good fortune of taking a well designed functional programming course. This is the paradigm shift that sometimes makes functional programming hard to learn for those that are used to other methods of programming. Expressions over mechanisms.

The Book

Part of what makes this book so interesting is that it was published as part of a series on programming from IBM. The series was called “The Systems Programming Series” and its charter was

a long term project to collect, organize, and publish those principles and techniques that would have lasting value throughout the industry.

IBM was trying to combat the tendency for systems programmers to all continually reinvent the wheel. In other words, this was not a series for the navel gazers in the Ivory Tower, this was for those on the ground programming real systems and solving ‘real world’ problems. Granted, the programming tasks of the day weren’t necessarily the same tasks that a programmer today might be focusing on, but the tools and techniques are more similar than one might think.

The book itself is divided into 5 chapters:

  1. Basic Notions and Notations
  2. Program Structure
  3. Data Structures
  4. Parsing
  5. Sorting

In the coming weeks we will take a look at each chapter and highlight Burge’s insights. The goal here is to provide a counter to the checklist approach to functional programming material. The core ideas are all here, my hope is that once those are internalized a lot of the modern discourse on Functional Programming can be seen in a new light.


Many of the older functional programmers I know were big Prog Rock fans. I find it fitting that many of those that were early proponents of what was a radical programming methodology were into radical music as well. I don’t know Burge, but I like to imagine that the soundtrack of the 1970’s was in the air as he was writing this book. With that spirit I’m going to link to a Prog Rock hit from the early to mid 1970’s with each post; because, why not?

So, for all of those early functional programmers that were called ‘dreamers’:


  1. Backus was trying to do more than just explain functional programming in his lecture, he was trying to turn the tide of programming language research. Because of this some of the technical work in the lecture has not aged super well. For instance in certain parts of the paper Backus emphasises point-free programming using an APL-style syntax. In the decades since the general consensus has moved away from this style.

  2. There were call by name languages, and the concept of a delayed computation or a ‘thunk’ was already well known. But I’d argue that the study of laziness as a discipline really only took off in the later 1970’s with the famous papers “A Lazy Evaluator” (1976) and “CONS should not Evaluate its Arguments” (also 1976). Let me know if I’ve missed something there.